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The remediation processes aided by microorganisms present at the various contaminated scenarios constitute bioremediation. Microbial remediation uses multiple metabolic pathways responsible for enzyme production; these enzymes mainly take part in the degradation pathways of xenobiotics. There are different customary methods for bioremediation, primarily based on the site of bioremediation, in and ex situ

In situ is applied to the site to minimize soil disturbance. This method is mostly adopted due to less expenditure from avoiding excavation and transport of contaminated soil. Less disruption in in situ bioremediation causes less dust dispersion and hence better degradation of contaminant. Bioaugmentation, bioventing, biosparging, and engineered in situ bioremediation are main in situ bioremediation methods. Ex situ bioremediation methods are solid phase system (composting, landfarming, and biopiling) and slurry phase system (bioreactor).

Transportation of soil to accelerate microbial degradation are done by solid and slurry phase systems, whereby treatments of domestic, industrial, and organic waste are done by ex situ bioremediation. These traditional bioremediation methods take time and consume much cost expenditure, giving less result output. Traditional bioremediation processes showed the above limitations of extra time taking, less removal or dissimilation of pollutants, disturbance to nature delicacy such as more land coverage for a long time, and a foul smell in the environment. Therefore, researchers are eager to discover new bioremediation technologies for best results. This approach can catch the catabolic and metabolic complexities for reviewing the potential of the microbial population synthetically.

The preliminary information for developing synthetic microbial models for bioremediation can be obtained by mining genes from the databases. The computer logics involvement can determine the microbial cell interactions with recalcitrant compounds. These strategies can together grasp the natural metabolic potential of microorganisms to transform into novel biological entities of interest. Furthermore, the regulation of metabolic pathways in a controlled manner can also be achieved for bioremediation processes.

This transition via synthetic biology application for remediation purposes would improve the bioremediation processes via the involvement of potent dissimilating particular contaminants. Synthetic biological systems mediate cellular modulations for efficient functioning and working of existing processes. They permit the modification of cellular processes viz. metabolic pathway acting for a particular chemical compound. The advancement of synthetic biology for bioremediation of various contaminants is attaining the focus of scientists and researchers. For instance, a sustainable synthetic microbial community’s establishment for bioremediation is being investigated.

Microbial interactions and quorum sensing within communities are vastly studied for application in the area of bioremediation with synthetic biology applications. Achievement of the synthetic genetic circuit of Pseudomonas putida proved to be the golden gadget for degradation studies. Besides this, genome editing by CRISPR-Cas, TALEN, and ZFNs adds knowledge for reviewing the progression in bioremediation studies. Synthetic microbial biosensors and metabolic engineering of cellular processes for utilization and detection of contaminant residues will remediate the environment from persistent recalcitrant pollutants.

As we can realize, there are many methods about microbial remediation, evolving in favor of the environment and the security of our customers.

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